After the Communist Party was banned in August 1991, an initiative group headed by Vladimir Voronin began collecting signatures for founding a new party – the Communist Party of Moldova (PCRM). In October1993 the constitutive conference adopted the operating principles of PCRM and elected the Republican Council, co-chaired by V. Voronin, F. Manolov and A. Neguta. In April 1994 the second PCRM conference declared itself the successor of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. On April 27, 1994 the Communist Party was officially registered.
On 24 December 1994 held the first PCRM Congress elected the Central Committee with Voronin as First Secretary. In April 1995 appeared the first number of the party newspaper “Communist”, which played a decisive role in shaping the party and spreading of communist ideas in society. In 1996 the Second PCRM Congress appointed Vladimir Voronin as presidential candidate. He got 10.26% of the votes and the Party supported the Petru Lucinschi in the second round. The third Congress in March 1997 set the objectives for the 1998 parliamentary elections in which PCRM gained 40 seats and became the opposition to the Alliance for Democracy and Reforms (ADR). In November 1999 PCRM and the Christian Democrats voted ADR out. In the same year PCRM did not support President Lucinschi in his quest to conduct a consultative referendum on changing the republican system of government to a presidential one. Instead, in July 2000, PCRM participated in changing the semi-presidential form of government to a parliamentary republic.
As a results of early parliamentary elections in February 2001 PCRM got 50% of the vote and 71 seats in Parliament. Thus, in March 2001 Eugenia Ostapciuc was elected Speaker and on April 4, 2001 Vladimir Voronin became President. On April 19 Vasile Tarlev was appointed Prime Minster with the governing program Economic Revival – Revival of the Country. The fourth Party Congress in April 2001 established two new positions that of Party President and Chairman of the Executive Secretary of the Party’s Central Committee. Vladimir Voronin was elected president and Victor Stepaniuc, leader of the Communist Party faction, became Executive Secretary. In September 2003 Moldova Party of Civic Dignity merged with PCRM. At the Fifth PCRM Congress in December 2004 Vladimir Voronin was re-elected as chairman of the Party and it was pointed out that the PCRM was a modern European left-wing party, which advocates Moldova’s European integration. It was also decided to initiate the development of a new party program, adapted to the existing socio-economic and political realities.
Following the parliamentary elections of March 2005, the Party gained 56 seats and ensured Voronin’s second presidential term by negotiating with Christian Democrats, Democrats and Social Liberals. In April 2005 Tarlev II Government was reinstated. After Tarlev’s resignation in March 2008 PCRM appointed Zinaida Greceanii as Prime Minister. In January 2007, PCRM became a full member of the European Left Party. Grigory Petrenko and Irina Vlah became members of the Executive Committee of the European Left Party.
The sixth PCRM Congress of March 2008 adopted a new party program, which establishes new strategic objectives for PCRM – defending sovereignty and strengthening statehood; restoring the territorial integrity; gradual modernization towards a postindustrial society, based on knowledge, competences, technology, high living standards and democratic culture. The Congress also unanimously re-elected Vladimir Voronin as President of the Party. Note that this Congress was aimed at bringing more youth into the party and was the first such event to allow free media access online broadcasting.
After April 2009 elections and the protests that followed it was all downhill for PCRM. On June 10 2009, former Speaker Marian Lupu defected, leading to PCRM losing the following elections despite getting the largest number of votes. Just like the July 29, 2009, the November 28, 2010 early elections gave PCRM a plurality of the vote, but the other parties formed a coalition keeping PCRM in opposition. Subsequent defections by communist headliners – Dodon, Grecianii, Misin, Sirbu – followed more recently by a purge of radicals like Muntean, Tkaciuk, and Petrenco. The latter three have not been excluded from the party, but have certainly lost their political heavyweights status.